Somewhere in the slipstream of wider debates about the future of football, a conversation over the use of five substitutes in the Premier League has rumbled on for some time. English football has concerned itself with far-reaching issues involving the possibility of an independent regulator and more robust ownership rules in light of Chelsea's sale and Newcastle United's takeover, all underpinned by a desire to preserve the integrity and competitiveness of the game.
Liverpool boss Jurgen Klopp is perhaps the biggest proponent of introducing the five substitutes rule, and from his point of view, it is easy to see why. Every other major European league has it, UEFA's three main competitions (Champions League, Europa League and European Championships) have it and there is a strong case for some sort of measure to aid player welfare. The Reds played 63 games in their 2021-22 campaign, though that is still five short of the English record held by Chelsea (69) in 2012-13. Klopp used all five substitutes in seven of Liverpool's nine league games during Project Restart, the coda to the 2019-20 season delayed by the coronavirus pandemic. Only Brighton (8) used more all five more often.
For much of the intervening period -- the Premier League voted against retaining five subs in 2020-21 and 2021-22 -- fault lines in the debate were drawn largely by the size of the club involved. Klopp used Burnley as a somewhat patronizing comparison in contrasting the high number of players Liverpool had engaged in international football, suggesting smaller teams would have fewer players away with their countries and could therefore use those punctuation points during the season to recover. It is a point with merit, but five substitutes doesn't solve the real underlying problem that the game's governing bodies do not want to address: there is too much football.
Sources have told ESPN that one member of the Big Six ran their own data modelling that suggested five substitutes would have had a negligible effect on their results, citing the number of matches as a far bigger factor. And this is the point the game's organisers do not want to address because it will inevitably affect their bottom line.
In the local league, the teams that turn up with just 5 players and no subs rarely win their games, but always end up looking like sweaty heart-attack candidates when the final whistle blows. Get at least one sub, preferably two, so that you can take it in turns getting a breather and the rest of the players can keep the pressure on the other team for the full match.
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Ocean chemistry encompasses a wide range of phenomena and chemical species, many of which are integral to the biology and ecology of the ocean (Section 3.3.10; Gattuso et al., 2014, 2015; Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2014; Pörtner et al., 2014)594. While changes to ocean chemistry are likely to be of central importance, the literature on how climate change might influence ocean chemistry over the short and long term is limited (medium confidence). By contrast, numerous risks from the specific changes associated with ocean acidification have been identified (Dove et al., 2013; Kroeker et al., 2013; Pörtner et al., 2014; Gattuso et al., 2015; Albright et al., 2016)595, with the consensus that resulting changes to the carbonate chemistry of seawater are having, and are likely to continue to have, fundamental and substantial impacts on a wide variety of organisms (high confidence). Organisms with shells and skeletons made out of calcium carbonate are particularly at risk, as are the early life history stages of a large number of organisms and processes such as de-calcification, although there are some taxa that have not shown high-sensitivity to changes in CO2, pH and carbonate concentrations (Dove et al., 2013; Fang et al., 2013; Kroeker et al., 2013; Pörtner et al., 2014; Gattuso et al., 2015)596. Risks of these impacts also vary with latitude and depth, with the greatest changes occurring at high latitudes as well as deeper regions. The aragonite saturation horizon (i.e., where concentrations of calcium and carbonate fall below the saturation point for aragonite, a key crystalline form of calcium carbonate) is decreasing with depth as anthropogenic CO2 penetrates deeper into the ocean over time. Under many models and scenarios, the aragonite saturation is projected to reach the surface by 2030 onwards, with a growing list of impacts and consequences for ocean organisms, ecosystems and people (Orr et al., 2005; Hauri et al., 2016)597.
Global mean warming reaches 3C by 2100 but is not yet stabilized despite major decreases in yearly CO2 emissions, as a net zero CO2 emissions budget could not yet be achieved and because of the long lifetime of CO2 concentrations (Chapters 1, 2 and 3). The world as it was in 2020 is no longer recognizable, with decreasing life expectancy, reduced outdoor labour productivity, and lower quality of life in many regions because of too frequent heatwaves and other climate extremes (Chapter 4, Section 4.3.3). Droughts and stress on water resources renders agriculture economically unviable in some regions (Chapter 3, Section 3.4; Chapter 4, Section 4.3.2) and contributes to increases in poverty (Chapter 5, Section 5.2.1; Cross-Chapter Box 12 in Chapter 5). Progress on the sustainable development goals is largely undone and poverty rates reach new highs (Chapter 5, Section 5.2.3). Major conflicts take place (Chapter 3, Section 188.8.131.52; Chapter 5, Section 5.2.1). Almost all ecosystems experience irreversible impacts, species extinction rates are high in all regions, forest fires escalate, and biodiversity strongly decreases, resulting in extensive losses to ecosystem services. These losses exacerbate poverty and reduce quality of life (Chapter 3, Section 3.4; Chapter 4, Section 4.3.2). Life for many indigenous and rural groups becomes untenable in their ancestral lands (Chapter 4, Box 4.3; Cross-Chapter Box 12 in Chapter 5). The retreat of the West Antarctic ice sheet accelerates (Chapter 3, Sections 3.3 and 3.6), leading to more rapid sea level rise (Chapter 3, Section 3.3.9; Chapter 4, Section 4.3.2). Several small island states give up hope of survival in their locations and look to an increasingly fragmented global community for refuge (Chapter 3, Box 3.5; Cross-Chapter Box 12 in Chapter 5). Aggregate economic damages are substantial, owing to the combined effects of climate changes, political instability, and losses of ecosystem services (Chapter 4, Sections 4.4.1 and 4.4.2; Chapter 3, Box 3.6 and Section 184.108.40.206). The general health and well-being of people is substantially reduced compared to the conditions in 2020 and continues to worsen over the following decades (Chapter 5, Section 5.2.3). 153554b96e