Test takers are instructed to draw a house, a tree, and a person as accurately as possible on separate sheets of paper. They are then asked a number of questions about their drawings. Buck proposed a list of 60 questions, however, trained test givers are free to create their own variations and ask follow-up questions.
Generally this test is administered as part of a series of personality and intelligence tests, like the Rorschach, TAT (or CAT for children), Bender, and Wechsler tests. The examiner integrates the results of these tests, creating a basis for evaluating the subject's personality from a cognitive, emotional, intra- and interpersonal perspective.
HTP is given to persons above the age of three and takes approximately 150 minutes to complete based on the subject's level of mental functioning. During the first phase, the test-taker is asked to draw the house, tree, and person and the test-giver asks questions about each picture. There are 60 questions originally designed by Buck but art therapists and trained test givers can also design their own questions, or ask follow up questions. This phase is done with a crayon.During the second phase of HTP, the test-taker draws the same pictures with a pencil or pen. Again the test-giver asks similar questions about the drawings. Note: some mental health professionals only administer phase one or two and may change the writing instrument as desired. Variations of the test may ask the person to draw one person of each sex, or put all drawings on the same page.
By virtue of being a projective test, the results of the HTP are subjective and open to interpretation by the administrator of the exam. The subjective analysis of the test takers responses and drawings aims to make inferences of personality traits and past experiences. The subjective nature of this aspect of the HTP, as with other qualitative tests, has little empirical evidence to support its reliability or validity. This test, however, is still considered an accurate measure of brain damage and used in the assessment of schizophrenic patients also suffering from brain damage. In addition, the quantitative measure of intelligence for the House-tree-person has been shown to highly correlate with the WAIS and other well-established intelligence tests.
The house-tree-person test (HTP) is a projective personality test, a type of exam in which the test taker responds to or provides ambiguous, abstract, or unstructured stimuli (often in the form of pictures or drawings). In the HTP, the test taker is asked to draw houses, trees, and persons, and these drawings provide a measure of self-perceptions and attitudes. As with other projective tests, it has flexible and subjective administration and interpretation.
As with other subjectively scored personality tests, there is little support for its reliability and validity. However, there is some evidence that the HTP can differentiate people with specific types of brain damage. More specifically, it has been shown to be effective when looking at the brain damage present in schizophrenic patients.
The synthetic-house-tree-person (S-HTP) test, which is a version of the HTP test, was developed by Buck in 1948 . Mikami developed the S-HTP test in Japan in 1979 . The original house-tree-person test (HTP) requires participants to draw three subjects on three pages. The special characteristic of the S-HTP test is that the house, the tree, and the person are drawn on the same sheet of paper and assessed together in relation to each other. Furthermore, the S-HTP is less of a burden because all of the objects can be drawn in the one sitting and can be taken in a relatively short time. Currently, the S-HTP drawing test is widely used for general psychological problems, mental illness such as schizophrenia, and psychological crisis intervention. The S-HTP drawing test not only reveals the discomfort of the patient in a bad situation but also improves self-awareness. Yet, it is rarely used in cancer patients. This study was designed to investigate its applicability and develop a predictive value that identifies anxiety in cancer patients.
Procedures. All patients underwent a detailed in-person clinical interview. During this interview, the self-edited general information questionnaire, self-anxiety rating scale (SAS), and the S-HTP drawing test were performed. The patients first completed the S-HTP drawing test and then allowed to rest for 5-10 minutes. Afterwards, the self-edited general information questionnaire and self-anxiety rating scale (SAS) were performed.
The S-HTP Drawing Test Applied [10, 15]. The whole process of S-HTP drawing test was done as follows: (1) tools: a piece of A4 white paper (210 mm × 297 mm), a 2B pencil, an eraser, and a writing board; (2) instructions: please draw a house, a tree, and a person and anything you want to draw in one picture. There is no time limit; (3) notes: the test must be completed by the individual. The patient should be informed that their drawing ability is not important and that they are just required to finish the drawing seriously. They cannot copy or use other tools. Any evaluation and tips cannot be given by researchers.
The House-Tree-Person (HTP) test in clinical psychology is part of the series of a group of projective tests which help in the assessment of personality traits. The HTP test is also administered to identify mental disorders like schizophrenia. Get to know how this test is interpreted.
Similar to writing, the act of drawing forms a powerful medium for us to let our emotions out. In fact, as we know, and some of us might even have experienced, that forms of fine art, including drawing, are seen to be stress-releasing activities. Off the mind and onto the paper. This is the knack behind a psychological personality test like the House-Tree-person test. It is like reading our minds from what we have scribbled or sketched on a sheet of paper.
Observations about where the person is placed on the page, the amount of detail shown from the drawing, etc., are part of significant interpretations. The person drawn of the same gender is usually taken to be the test-taker himself or herself.Arms and Hands: Position of the hands, open of closed fists, and specific gestures, if any, indicate behavioral traits.
This test is not considered to be reliable or valid by many, as it is mainly a subjectively scored personality test. There also are variations in how the test is administered: in one or two phases, all drawings on single or separate sheets of paper, asking to draw two different persons (one of each gender), either using crayon or pencil (not both), different questions asked, etc.
In global assessments of development, it is common to use a standard test battery that includes quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments. The use of the projective drawing test is one of the qualitative techniques used in the evaluation of children and adolescents. An important aspect that is sensitive to projective techniques is self-perception. Often youngsters are consolidating their gender expression, and this type of method can be a useful tool to help them. Previous studies have shown that youngsters with gender dysphoria tend to draw an individual with a sex opposite the one first assigned at birth (Zucker et al., 1983; Cohen-Kettenis and Pfäfflin, 2003; in these studies, the diagnostic classification was from the DSM-IV). There is an evolutionary pattern in the literature that points to a general tendency to draw a person with the same sex assigned at birth when asked to draw a person, but drawing the opposite sex assigned at birth had not been confirmed as an indicator of emotional difficulties (Arteche et al., 2010). However, considering the updating of nomenclatures, when studies depart from a perspective of gender identities instead of the assigned sex at birth, it is perceived that the drawing of the human figure indicates that subject and experienced gender are consistent and significant predictors of the gender of the drawn figure (Houston and Terwilliger, 1995). The drawing of the human figure has as its premise the projection of the image of the body itself in the drawing, that is, the conception that the subject has of his/her own body and his/her function in the social world (Buck, 2003). A study using a projective test on adults with gender dysphoria showed a tendency to subjectively perceive imperfection or personal inadequacy (Barišić et al., 2014). The same logic can be extended to young people. Compared to couples, transgender youth have lower self-perception, especially in physical self-worth, a fact that may be related to the high rates of co-occurring psychopathology (Alberse et al., 2019).
In this assignment you will implement a decision tree learning algorithm andapply it to a synthetic dataset. You will also implement a pruning strategy inyour algorithm. You will be given labeled training data, from which you willgenerate a model. You will be given labeled validation data, for which you willreport your model's performance. You will also be given individualizedunlabeled test data for which you will generate predictions.
For this assignment you will implement a decision tree algorithmin the language of your choice. In particular, you should not use Weka orany other existing framework for generating decision trees. You are free tochoose how your algorithm works. Your program must be able to:
Make plans to attend the Houston Public Library (HPL) book and arts festival on Saturday, October 5, 2013, 1 - 5 p.m. at the HPL Central Library, 500 McKinney Street, Houston 77002. This free festival highlights Hispanic writers and showcases the vibrant culture of the Latino community! 2b1af7f3a8