World Of Subways Vol 3 Serial 28
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A serial killer is typically a person who kills three or more people, with the murders taking place over more than a month and including a significant period of time between them. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines serial murder as "a series of two or more murders, committed as separate events, usually, but not always, by one offender acting alone".
EDRs can be simple or complex in design, scope, and reach. They can make a major impact on highway safety, assisting in real-world data collection to better define the auto safety problem, aiding in law enforcement, and understanding the specific aspects of a crash.
Preliminary Evaluation of Advanced Air Bag Field Performance using Event Data Recordersby H. Clay Gabler (Virginia Tech), Craig P. Thor (Virginia Tech), and John Hinch (NHTSA), August 2008, DOT HS 811 01ABSTRACT: This report describes a preliminary evaluation of the field performance of occupant restraint systems designed with advanced air bag features including those specified in the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 for advanced air bags, through the use of event data recorders. Although advanced restraint systems have been extensively tested in the laboratory, we are only beginning to understand the performance of these systems in the field. Because EDRs record many of the inputs to the advanced air bag control module, these devices can provide unique insights into the characteristics of field performance of air bags. This research program investigates the feasibility of using EDR data to evaluate advanced air bags. Specifically, this report discusses (1) the development of an expanded EDR dataset based on data retrieved from NASS/CDS 2005, SCI, and CIREN in-depth crash investigations, (2) the validation of the accuracy of EDRs in full-scale crash tests, and (3) the feasibility of using EDRs to monitor the performance of advanced air bag restraints in real-world crashesFinal Report [PDF]
Analysis of Event Data Recorder Data for Vehicle Safety Improvementby Marco P. daSilva, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VRTC), Cambridge, MA., April 2008, DOT HS 810 935 Analysis of Event Data Recorder Data for Vehicle Safety ImprovementABSTRACT: The Volpe Center performed a comprehensive engineering analysis of Event Data Recorder (EDR) data supplied by NHTSA to assess its accuracy and usefulness in crash reconstruction and improvement of vehicle safety systems. The Volpe Center gathered and analyzed 2,541 EDR files downloaded from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS), Special Crash Investigations (SCI), and Crash Injury Research & Engineering Network (CIREN) databases supplied by NHTSA. The analyses focused on EDR file format and potential improvements, assessment of crash types where EDR data exists, review of EDR data for accuracy and completeness, EDR data comparisons with existing crash data, review of pre-crash, crash, and post-crash data for usefulness in better understanding the crash reconstruction, identification of error sources, and determination of methods by which researchers could use the EDR data to improve their crash case information. The results of the engineering analysis show that EDR data can objectively report real-world crash data and therefore be a powerful investigative and research tool, by providing very useful information to crash reconstructionists and vehicle safety researchers. Due to significant limitations however, EDR data should always be used in conjunction with other data sources.
National Cooperative Highway Research Program Research Project Statement, Project 17-24, FY 2002 Use of Event Data Recorder Technology for Roadside Crash Data AnalysisABSTRACT: An important function of the Transportation Research Board is the stimulation of research toward the solution of problems facing the transportation community. One of the techniques employed by technical committees in support of this function is the identification of problems, and the development and dissemination of research problem statements. The aim of this activity is to provide information to governmental agencies, research institutes, industry, the academic community and others in allocating scarce resources to the solution of transportation problems. There is a critical need to obtain accurate and reliable real-world crash data to improve vehicle and highway safety. The use of event data recorder information has the ability to profoundly affect roadside safety. EDRs are capable of capturing vehicle dynamics data, such as vehicle speed; lateral and longitudinal acceleration-time histories; principal direction of force on the vehicle; the status of braking, steering, seat belt usage, and air bag deployment; and other valuable crash information. This represents a new source of objective data for the highway and vehicle safety community because it will provide a real-world connection between controlled test results and actual field performance of vehicles and highway design features. EDRs have the potential to capture a large number of crash-related and other data elements for a wide range of users with different data needs. The data elements related to improving vehicle safety and driver performance are being used, but little has been done to apply the data elements to roadside safety analysis. Research can identify data elements relevant to roadside safety and improve methods to retrieve, store, and access these data.(Source: Transportation Research Board)
ABSTRACT: Event Data Recorders (EDRs) are devices that record information related to highway vehicle crash. EDRs could have a major impact on highway safety, assisting in real-world data collection, better defining the auto safety problem, aiding law enforcement in understanding the specific aspects of a crash. This report summarizes the activities and findings of the NHTSA sponsored Truck and Bus Event Data Recorder Working Group (T&B EDR WG).
ASTRACT: Impact severity in collisions that can cause soft-tissue neck injuries are most commonly specified in terms of change of velocity. However, it has been shown from real-world collisions that mean acceleration influences the risk of these injuries. For a given change of velocity this means an increased risk for shorter duration of the crash pulse. Furthermore, dummy response in crash tests has shown to vary depending on the duration of the crash pulse for a given change of velocity. The range of duration for change of velocities suggested for sled tests that evaluate the protection of the seat from soft-tissue neck injuries are still to be established. The aim of this study was to quantify the variation of duration of the crash pulse for vehicles impacted from the rear at change of velocities suggested in test methods that evaluate the protection from soft-tissue neck injuries. Crash pulses from the same vehicle models from different generations in real-world collisions producing a similar change of velocity were also analyzed. The results from the crash tests show that similar changes of velocity can be generated with various durations of crash pulses for a given change of velocity in rear impacts. The results from real-world collisions showed that a similar change of velocity was generated with various durations and shapes of crash pulses for the same vehicle model.
ASTRACT: Knowledge from real-world crashes is important in the design of a crashworthy road transportation system. Such design must be based on the human injury tolerance limits. Links between impact severity and injury outcome are important and could be used in order to achieve such tolerance limits. Traditionally impact severity has been calculated with retrospective reconstruction technique, although recently, injury risk functions have been presented where impact severity has been measured with crash pulse recorders. The aims of this paper were to present injury risk functions, with special reference to neck injuries, calculated with crash recorder and paired comparison technique, and to propose a way of combining the two methods. By combining comprehensive statistical material with in depth crash recorder information, injury risk functions for injuries to different body regions were established. Risk functions for AIS1 neck injuries both in frontal and rear-end impacts have also been established. It was found that the data from the crash pulse recorder generated risk functions could be used to validate and calibrate risk functions based on the matched-paired technique. Moreover, it was found that the shape of the injury risk curves differed significantly for injuries to different body regions. It was also found that the neck injury risk differed significantly for frontal and rear-end impacts. It is concluded, that adding new techniques to the existing techniques based on reconstruction can further refine generating risk functions. The injury risks found are important for the understanding of injury tolerance limits for injuries to different body regions, but also for the understanding of injury mechanisms for different injury types.
ASTRACT: The United States Department of Transportation has been conducting a major study on the causes of large-truck crashes. An unprecedented database containing highly detailed data (over 1,000 data elements) on 1,000 serious large-truck crashes is being created. When completed, it will be the most comprehensive database on large-truck crashes in existence. The database will be made widely available to researchers around the world. This paper will describe the many pieces of information in the database and the countless uses of the data. Specific examples will be discussed that illustrate the richness, depth, quality, and the variety of the data. The paper will also discuss the methods being used to capture and describe the contributing factors and the events that led up to each crash, as well as illustrate the added value of collecting data on-scene, immediately after the crash. 2b1af7f3a8