Abstinence from oral, vaginal, and anal sex and participating in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with a partner known to be uninfected are prevention approaches to avoid transmission of STIs. For persons who are being treated for an STI (or whose partners are undergoing treatment), counseling that encourages abstinence from sexual intercourse until completion of the entire course of medication is vital for preventing reinfection. A trial conducted among women regarding the effectiveness of counseling messages when patients have cervicitis or vaginal discharge demonstrated that women whose sex partners have used condoms might benefit from a hierarchical message that includes condoms but women without such experience might benefit more from an abstinence-only message (104). A more comprehensive discussion of abstinence and other sexual practices that can help persons reduce their risk for STIs is available in Contraceptive Technology, 21st Edition (31).
Certain health departments now use technology (e.g., email, texting, mobile applications, and social media outlets) to facilitate partner services for locating and notifying the sex partners of persons with STIs, including HIV (118,119). Patients now have the option to use Internet sites to send anonymous email or text messages advising partners of their exposure to an STI (120); anonymous notification via the Internet is considered better than no notification at all. However, because the extent to which these sites affect partner notification and treatment is uncertain, patients should be encouraged to notify their partners in person or by telephone, email, or text message; alternatively, patients can authorize a medical provider or public health professional to notify their sex partners.
The risk for a child acquiring an STI as a result of sexual abuse or assault has not been well studied. Presumptive treatment for children who have been sexually assaulted or abused is not recommended because the incidence of most STIs among children is low after abuse or assault, prepubertal girls appear to be at lower risk for ascending infection than adolescent or adult women, and regular follow-up of children usually can be ensured. However, certain children or their parent or guardian might be concerned about the possibility of infection with an STI, even if the health care provider has perceived the risk to be low. Such concerns might be an indication for presumptive treatment in certain settings and might be considered after all relevant specimens for diagnostic tests have been collected.
Because we were born and raised in the 1960s and came of age in the 1970s and 1980s, we experienced some of the most transitional and powerful discoveries in history that affects how we are in the world. We have always lived in an integrated world, regardless of what others might think about the south, life was good and kind. We experienced classrooms with both Black and White teachers and Black and White classmates whose social economic status was similar to our own. We watched men go off to work, pray in church, and take part in building our communities. We watched mothers who stayed home and others who went off to work in textile mills, hospitals as nurses, or the field for seasonal work. Regardless, there was the expectation that your community had for you to get an education and be the best you that you can be for yourself and community. Make a difference in the world; put God first; do unto others as you would have them do unto you; and know that you were loved were messages that sustain us through our adolescence and young adulthood.
Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements.
The ways in which social marketing strategies are best used in relation to doping are open to debate. Despite the use of secondary sourced information by various campaigns to deter athletes as well as the exercise population from using performance enhancing drugs (PED) , little is known about the most effective way to communicate messages that promote abstinence from PED use, whether it is for health, moral or legal reasons, although the latter one has been shown to have a lesser effect on athletes' decisions in hypothetical scenarios . In the past anti-doping messages were typically produced in two forms: i) moralising sport competition or ii) employing scare campaigns, involving informing only the negative outcomes so that they outweigh the positives. The effectiveness of this approach depends on a plethora of external and internal factors, such as level of fear, framing, vivid presentation, physical versus social consequences, specificity, referencing, argument strength, source credibility, number of exposures, individual differences, emotions and goals . With regard to PEDs, this approach has been shown not to yield any significant benefit in terms of deterrence whereas campaigns which provide secondary information in a more balanced manner have been shown to significantly increase agreement on adverse effects of PEDs . These campaigns may help inform athletes of benefits and risks but fail to suggest acceptable alternatives.
While an Aboriginal and/or local focus was valued by participants and made it more likely that a post would be shared, it was not a necessary pre-condition for sharing child-focused messages. The most shared post was a Thai Health Promotion ad with subtitles (week 6, option A). It shows footage of young children asking for a light from adult smokers, all of whom refuse and cite a range of reasons why the children should not smoke. The children then hand a note to the adults, reminding them that these reasons apply equally to themselves. It was seen to have universal relevance, evoked strong emotions, and highlighted for many people the importance of both role modelling and being consistent in their actions and advice to young people about smoking. This post was shared by eight of the 10 participants who posted that week.
The least popular content featured sarcastic, indirect or obscure messages. Content considered likely to have the potential for shame, embarrassment or disgust was also shared less frequently, as was content which placed less importance on people such as the environmental impact of tobacco, or the effect of second-hand smoke on pets.
The indictments, summons, sentences, bills of exception, and similar documents for Brown and his raiders are held by the Jefferson County Circuit Clerk, and have been digitized by West Virginia Archives and History. Two separate collections of relevant letters were published. The first is the messages, mostly telegrams, sent and received by Governor Wise. The Senate of Maryland published the many internal telegrams of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 2b1af7f3a8